Conference Proceeding

Permissive Left-Turn Behavior at the Flashing Yellow Arrow in the Presence of Pedestrians

  • Patrick Marnell (Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR)
  • Halston Tuss (Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR)
  • David Hurwitz (Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR)
  • Kirk Paulsen (Portland State University, Portland, OR)
  • Chris Monsere (Portland State University, Portland, Orego)


Use of the flashing yellow arrow indication for permissive left-turn control has become more common in the U.S. since it was adopted in the 2009 Edition of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. A complete understanding of the safety implications at signalized intersections is critically important. This paper examines the results of a permissive left-turn driver behavior study conducted in a high fidelity driving simulator. The experimental results suggest 1) that when there are more pedestrians present in the conflicting crosswalk, the driver’s average fixation duration on crossing pedestrians is greater than when there is minimal pedestrian activity; 2) that 4% to 7% of drivers do not fixate on pedestrians in the crosswalk when completing their left turn; and 3) that 39% of drivers do not fixate on likely pedestrian locations when pedestrians are not present.

How to Cite:

Marnell, P. & Tuss, H. & Hurwitz, D. & Paulsen, K. & Monsere, C., (2013) “Permissive Left-Turn Behavior at the Flashing Yellow Arrow in the Presence of Pedestrians”, Driving Assessment Conference 7(2013), 488-494. doi:

Rights: Copyright © 2013 the author(s)

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Published on
20 Jun 2013
Peer Reviewed