Conference Proceeding

Am I Driving or Are You or Are We Both? A Taxonomy for Handover and Handback in Automated Driving

  • Philipp Wintersberger (CARISSMA, University of Applied Sciences, Ingolstadt, Germany)
  • Paul Green (University of Michigan,Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, MI)
  • Andreas Riener


In this paper, a taxonomy of handover and handback (i.e., from manual to automatic control and vice versa) is proposed to be used by practitioners and researchers to help assure the duration of those periods are clearly defined, and accordingly, studies examining them are comparable and have repeatable results. Furthermore, use of this framework will help assure that those implementing automation will do so in a comprehensive manner. The taxonomy is more detailed than that in SAE Standard J3114. Handover includes the phases preparation, perception (of the handover signal), suspension (of in-vehicle tasks) and the actual process of taking over, which can be subdivided into sufficient (to steer and control speed) and full (where situation awareness is complete) control. Furthermore, handover can be imminent, scheduled, or user-initiated. For handback, the phases are initialization, the actual handback, and re-engagement (of the driver). Handback may be optional or mandatory and user- or system initiated. For both handover and handback processes, the duration and change of the control transfer (as a function of time) needs to be precisely described/specified.

How to Cite:

Wintersberger, P. & Green, P. & Riener, A., (2017) “Am I Driving or Are You or Are We Both? A Taxonomy for Handover and Handback in Automated Driving”, Driving Assessment Conference 9(2017), 333-339. doi:

Rights: Copyright © 2017 the author(s)

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Published on
29 Jun 2017
Peer Reviewed