Conference Proceeding

Time-to-Arrival and Useful Field of View: Associations with Reported Driving Difficulties Among Older Adults

Authors: , , ,


The purpose of this study was to determine self-reported driving difficulties related to time-to-arrival (TTA) and/or useful field of view (UFOV), to identify associations between TTA and UFOV, and to compare the TTA estimated accuracy between different vehicle speed approaches. Thirty-eight male and female active drivers ages 61 to 81 years (70,2 ± 5,0 years) participated in this study. The UFOV® test was applied. TTA was studied with a removal paradigm, using two vehicle speeds (50 and 70km/h) for data collection. A driving habits questionnaire was administered, including items concerning driving difficulties. Results showed that lower performances in divided attention (subtest 2 of UFOV®) were significantly associated with reported difficulties in hightraffic intersections, trouble seeing the signs in time to respond to them, and problems judging the speed or distance of an approaching vehicle. Concerning TTA, greater response bias and/or greater response inconsistency were significantly associated with difficulties in overtaking other cars, difficulties seeing the signs in time to react to them, difficulties in the speed or distance perception of an oncoming vehicle. Low associations were found between UFOV and TTA measures. TTA estimated accuracy increased when the vehicle traveled at higher speeds. We concluded that both TTA and UFOV seem to be important measures to identify driving difficulties in older adults. The TTA could be relevant in measuring specific aspects of visual information processing in addition to other instruments like UFOV®.


How to Cite: Marmeleira, J. , Ferreira, J. , Godinho, M. & Fernandes, O. (2007) “Time-to-Arrival and Useful Field of View: Associations with Reported Driving Difficulties Among Older Adults”, Driving Assessment Conference. 4(2007). doi: